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Cases of CBD oil users failing drug tests are on the rise. Learn more about why this happens and how to avoid it. So you failed a drug test after taking CBD oil? Well, you're not the only one. Find out why it happened in this explanatory guide. Full-Spectrum CBD May Trigger Positive THC Result Use of so-called “full-spectrum” formulations of cannabidiol (CBD) products can cause users to test positive for THC, the component of marijuana

Does CBD Show Up On a Drug Test?

Sherry Christiansen is a medical writer with a healthcare background. She has worked in the hospital setting and collaborated on Alzheimer’s research.

Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. Content is reviewed before publication and upon substantial updates. Learn more.

Femi Aremu, PharmD, is a professional pharmacist with experience in clinical and community pharmacy. He currently practices in Chicago, Illinois.

Despite the fact that cannabidiol (CBD) is derived from cannabis—the same type of plant that marijuana comes from—CBD should not show up on a drug test. That said, it is possible.

Drug tests check for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) because that is the cannabis compound that makes people feel high. CBD products are typically THC-free.

However, CBD products can contain 0.3% of THC by law. In some people, that may be enough to yield a positive drug test result.

This article explains why CBD products may show up on a drug test as THC. It also details what to look for in CBD products so you can prevent a positive drug test.

Does CBD Oil Contain THC?

The active chemical in marijuana that gets detected in a positive drug test screening is THC. Most people are under the impression that CBD oil is THC-free, which is generally true. But not always.

As it turns out, depending on the source of the cannabis that is used to produce the CBD oil, some products do contain traces of THC. This includes low-quality isolates and many full-spectrum tinctures. A full spectrum oil contains other active plant compounds in addition to CBD.

Cannabis Types

Cannabis is the umbrella term describing hemp and marijuana plants—two different varieties of the Cannabis genus. Both marijuana and hemp can be described as cannabis, but they are two different plants.

CBD is one of many active chemical compounds in cannabis plants. One reason it’s becoming more popular is that it’s said to lack THC.

The primary difference between hemp and marijuana is that hemp is nearly void of THC. In fact, a cannabis strain must contain less than 0.3% THC to be classified as hemp. This is why hemp can be legally sold in various products.

Most CBD products are made from hemp, not marijuana.

There are many distinctions between marijuana and hemp that relate to CBD oil. Marijuana contains both THC (the “high”-inducing element) and CBD. Hemp contains CBD and only trace amounts of THC.

Hemp also contains many cannabinoids, which is a name for the compounds found in cannabis. CBD is only one example.

There are several techniques for extracting CBD oil from the cannabis plant. The extraction method determines whether the CBD oil is an “isolate” or a “full-spectrum oil.”

A CBD isolate is a pure compound with no other active compounds or cannabinoids. The full-spectrum compounds may include other active chemicals, such as cannabinol and cannabis terpenes (the part of the plant that gives the plant its aroma).

Study of CBD Oil

While some CBD oils claim to be isolates, they may be full-spectrum oils and actually contain more cannabinoids (such as THC) than they claim.

A study conducted at the internationally known Lautenberg Center For Immunology and Cancer found that CBD was more effective at treating inflammation and pain when used with other cannabis plant compounds.

These compounds were derived from a full-spectrum product rather than a CBD isolate product alone. This is one reason that full-spectrum products (those containing THC) are popular.

However, the distinction between full-spectrum oils and isolates makes all the difference if you are being tested for drug use.

Reasons for Failing a CBD Drug Test

There are several common reasons a person can test positive for THC after taking CBD.

Using Product With THC

The most common reason for a failed CBD drug test is that a person is using a CBD oil product that contains THC. This may be a full-spectrum product. Sometimes, though, it could be a low-quality isolate product that contains a small amount of THC.

Although most manufacturers claim their products do not contain THC, this is not always the case.

Cross-Contamination of THC

Very small amounts of THC present in the material that CBD is extracted from can get into the CBD oil in high enough amounts to result in a positive drug test. This scenario may be more likely to occur when CBD oil is purchased from cannabis dispensaries in places where cannabis is legal.

Mislabeling of Products

CBD oil extracted from hemp is not supposed to contain more than 0.3% THC. However, it’s not uncommon for sellers to mislabel their products as THC-free hemp when, in reality, it’s a low-quality oil extracted from marijuana. And marijuana does contain THC.

In fact, one study discovered that almost 70% of the CBD products sold online were mislabeled. This caused “potential serious harm to its consumers.” The reason for this widespread mislabeling is that CBD products are not strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Secondhand Exposure to THC

Inadvertent exposure to marijuana (via secondhand smoke) is unlikely to be enough for a person to get a positive drug test result. But it is possible. Being in a room with heavy pot smokers for several hours may cause the inhalation of enough THC-containing smoke to result in a positive test result.

A more likely secondhand exposure scenario is a positive marijuana hair test. This results from direct contact with marijuana paraphernalia or from another person having THC on their hands.

For instance, say that someone who had direct contact with marijuana then touched your hair. You could feasibly receive a false positive on a drug screening that tests your hair.

CBD Oil Breakdown in the Digestive System

Some sources report that in rare cases, false positive test results have come from CBD oil that breaks down into very small amounts of THC in the stomach. Other studies, however, have refuted this finding.

The conclusion is that it’s still theoretically possible for traces of THC to be present in stomach acid when “less-purified CBD productions” are ingested.

How to Avoid a Positive CBD Drug Test

If you take CBD oil, you can take steps to try to prevent failing a drug test:

  • Do thorough research to ensure the CBD product you’re using is pure and that the company is legitimate.
  • Look for manufacturers that have been accredited by the Better Business Bureau.
  • Ensure that the CBD oil is an isolate product extracted from a viable industrial hemp supply. It should not be a low-quality tincture.
  • Ask questions about product processing techniques and the possibility of cross-contamination.
  • Avoid secondhand exposure to marijuana use via pot smoking or hair contact from THC users.

Summary

CBD oil is usually marketed as THC-free, but that’s not always the case. Full-spectrum CBD oils contain other cannabinoids, which may include THC. Isolate products may be contaminated with THC, as well.

You have to be proactive to avoid failing a drug test if you’re taking CBD oil. Most important: Ensure that you’re using a pure product made by a reputable company.

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A Word From Verywell

In theory, getting a false positive on a drug test from CBD oil should be relatively impossible from pure CBD oil containing less than 0.3% THC. However, because CBD oil is not well regulated, there is no guarantee that a product contains pure CBD oil or that its concentration is safe or effective.

Use the utmost caution and do your research when purchasing a quality CBD oil product to ensure its purity, especially if you need to undergo a drug screening.

Frequently Asked Questions

Drug tests look for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the element in marijuana that causes a high. CBD oils can have trace amounts of THC even if they’re labeled “THC-free.”

Yes. If the products contain THC, you could test positive. If you know you’ll need to take a drug test, avoid full-spectrum CBD products that may contain small amounts of THC. Be sure you purchase products from a reliable source. And be wary of online retailers; researchers have found that 21% of online CBD and hemp products were mislabeled.

Drug tests do not typically measure CBD. Most tests check for THC, the psychoactive component in marijuana. Depending on the frequency of use, THC can be picked up on a test anywhere from a few days for a single use or over a month for heavy daily pot smokers.

CBD edibles take about 30 to 60 minutes to start to take effect. They last five to six hours, depending on your metabolism and dose. A CBD edible may show up on a drug test as THC metabolites for three days. However, if you frequently take CBD edibles, it can take up to 15 days to have a clean urine test.

The FDA strongly advises against taking CBD or THC products while nursing. Cannabis products can be excreted through breastmilk and are not safe for the baby. Cannabinoids can stay in your milk for up to six days, so “pumping and dumping” may not be a good option.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

Huestis MA. Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1770-804. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790152

Nahler G, Grotenhermen F, Zuardi AW, Crippa JAS. A conversion of oral cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol seems not to occur in humans. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):81-86. doi:10.1089/can.2017.0009

Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling accuracy of cannabidiol extracts sold online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909

Crippa JA, Guimarães FS, Campos AC, Zuardi AW. Translational investigation of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a new age. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2009. Published 2018 Sep 21. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009

By Sherry Christiansen
Sherry Christiansen is a medical writer with a healthcare background. She has worked in the hospital setting and collaborated on Alzheimer’s research.

Failed a Drug Test After Taking CBD Oil? [Here’s Why…]

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CBD doesn’t cause an intoxicating high, but even high-quality brands sell products (full-spectrum) that contain trace amounts of THC. For those who are subject to drug tests or screenings, this can present an obvious problem. There are plenty of reports outlining instances where people have failed drug tests after using CBD oil.

While there are THC-free CBD isolates and broad-spectrum products, we can’t always trust product labeling. This is due to the unregulated nature of the industry.

This article looks into reasons why you could potentially fail a drug test after using CBD oil. First, however, let’s analyze whether drug screenings can detect cannabidiol.

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Do Drug Tests Even Look for CBD?

Employers perform drug tests to check for different illicit substances, including marijuana. Many companies create their own drug testing policies that must follow state law and make hiring and firing decisions based on the results.

Employees have protection in certain states. For instance, New York approved recreational marijuana laws that include employment protections in 2021. In the state, companies are not allowed to discriminate against employees who use recreational marijuana legally while off-duty. In New Jersey, organizations can’t complete adverse employment actions based entirely on a positive marijuana test.

However, not every state has such laws. California, a state that allows adult-use marijuana, doesn’t protect employees who use it outside of work hours.

Companies abide by SAMSHA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) guidelines in states with no marijuana usage protection for employees. This practice ensures employers remain within the law.

A typical drug screen for marijuana uses a urine sample to detect the presence of THC or one of its metabolites (i.e., THC-COOH). Therefore, drug screenings do not check for CBD. However, full-spectrum CBD products, even those derived from hemp, can contain up to 0.3% THC.

At less than 0.3% in hemp-based oils, these trace amounts are negligible in producing a high. They are not negligible, unfortunately, when it comes to showing up on a drug test.

So how can you know whether the CBD oil you consume has enough THC in it to fail a drug test? Well, there’s no real clear answer to this. We can, however, take a look at some figures to help get a better idea.

THC Cutoff Levels

As per SAMHSA, the cutoff limit for the presence of THC in an individual’s system is 50 ng/mL. Any detection of THC over this amount can result in a failed drug test. Certain employers look for lower levels of THC metabolites, just 20ng/ml in some instances. Clearly, this greatly increases the risk of failing a drug screening, even if you only use CBD oil.

Unfortunately, there are a lot of variables and contributing factors that influence the specific amount of THC present in a person’s body at any one moment. These include things like metabolism, body mass index, gender, and more.

It is extremely difficult to gauge exactly how much cannabis (or CBD oil) it would take to surpass the 50 ng/mL cutoff.

It’s even more difficult to gauge when talking about the small, trace amounts of THC present in a standard bottle of CBD oil.

How Much THC Is in CBD Oil?

Like all high-quality brands, PureKana ensures its products contain less than 0.3% THC. However, its full-spectrum vanilla 1600mg CBD oil has just over 55mg of delta-9-THC per 30ml bottle as per its third-party lab reports. This represents a THC content of below 0.2%.

In Joy Organics’ 900mg Key Lime tincture, there is about 34.5mg of CBD in the 30ml bottle, the equivalent of approximately 0.12% THC according to the brand.

In fact, brands can have up to 90mg of THC in a 30ml bottle and remain within the 0.3% limit. Therefore, if you consumed a full bottle of either, you would ingest 34-55mg of THC. While as little as 3mg of THC can cause intoxication by itself, the huge CBD to THC ratio means you’re in no danger of getting high. The vast level of cannabidiol counteracts the intoxicating effects of delta-9.

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Is weed really stronger now th…

Is This Enough THC to Fail a Drug Screening?

Yes, it potentially is, according to some research. A study published in the Iranian Journal of Psychiatry found that smoking 27mg of THC in marijuana produced a THC-COOH reading of 180ng/ml in a urine sample approximately four hours later.

For occasional THC users, the cannabinoid’s half-life ranges from 1.4 days to 4 days, increasing to 7 days for regular users. Therefore, it would take a minimum of 2.8 days to go below the 50ng/ml threshold in the above example (180 becomes 90 in 1.4 days and 45 in 2.8 days).

A 2003 study found that failing a drug test was possible after using low levels of THC. Researchers gave seven people varying THC doses for five days and conducted numerous drug tests across ten weeks. One of the seven volunteers exceeded the 50ng/ml limit after using 0.47mg of THC per day. Six of the seven participants failed a test with a 20ng/ml limit after consuming the same level of THC.

Overall, the risk of failing a test with a 20ng/ml limit was 12.8% when using 0.47mg of THC a day and 5.1% when the dose was 0.39mg of THC.

A report by Johns Hopkins Medicine in 2019 found that a single dose of CBD could result in a failed drug test. The researchers gave six adults a vaporized dose of 100mg CBD and 3.7mg THC. Two of the six adults tested positive for THC metabolites at above the 50ng/ml limit.

This sounds like terrible news for CBD oil users, but there’s no need to panic.

Why CBD Shouldn’t Make You Fail Your Test

Although the dosage is higher for conditions such as epilepsy, it is rare for anyone to use over 100mg of CBD a day. Indeed, it is more common to use 50mg or less. If you consume 50mg of CBD via PureKana’s oil, you’ll ingest approximately 1.7mg of THC a day. By dropping to 15mg of CBD a day, you would fall below 0.5mg of THC.

However, the greater danger lies in how poorly the industry is regulated. While high-quality CBD oil might lead to a tiny chance of THC detection, plenty of brands don’t follow the rules.

Will CBD Oil Fail a Drug Test? – Reputation Matters

Only a handful of states have implemented strict laws relating to the CBD market. As a result, the industry’s ‘Wild West’ nature means there are too many brands selling products of dubious quality. Without accurate third-party lab testing, there is no way of knowing the THC content of products.

There is plenty of research that shows the scale of the problem. A study by Penn Medicine in 2017 analyzed 84 products from 31 companies. The researchers found that 21% of the samples had THC concentrations of up to 6.43mg per ml. It is a level that’s well over the 0.3% limit.

It’s essential to buy from reputable CBD brands that provide lab reports with their products. Otherwise, you’re more likely to fail a screening.

In 2018, the CDC released a report showing that CBD products in Utah poisoned up to 50 people. These items contained synthetic marijuana known as K2 and Spice. Overall, the risk of failing a drug test is much higher when you buy products from unknown brands or companies that don’t offer up-to-date third-party reports.

However, as the CDC report shows, failing a drug screening could be the least of your worries.

Does CBD Oil Fail a Drug Test?

Unfortunately, people who use CBD oil can (and have) failed marijuana drug tests before. This is true even for hemp-based oils that contain less than 0.3% THC. A failure in your test results can lead to missed job opportunities or termination from a current position.

Even still, some CBD companies claim you can’t fail a drug test after using their products. If you come across any claims like this, take precautions.

If you are taking any product extracted from cannabis (even from low-THC industrial hemp), the possibility is there that you may fail a drug test. We’ve even heard stories of people failing drug tests after using CBD isolate, which is supposed to be 100% THC-free.

What Types of CBD Oil Products Are There?

If you’re interested in using CBD oil but concerned about failing a drug test, it is essential to know the type of products on the market. In general, you can expect to find the following:

  • Cannabis Oil: Legally, you can only purchase this in a licensed dispensary in a recreational state or one with a medical marijuana program if you have an MMJ card. Cannabis oil typically has high levels of THC, so check out its cannabinoid content. Unless it comes from a strain such as Charlotte’s Web, which is high in CBD and low in THC, cannabis oil is likely to result in a failed drug test.
  • Full-Spectrum CBD Oil from Hemp: This is the classic CBD option and should contain a maximum of 0.3% THC. However, as we explored above, it doesn’t provide a cast-iron guarantee of passing a drug test, especially if you use large amounts. Also, make sure the product comes with an up-to-date third-party lab report and is sold by a reputable brand.
  • Broad-Spectrum CBD Oil: This is similar to full-spectrum, but with one significant difference, there is no THC. A broad-spectrum product gives you many other cannabinoids and terpenes and, supposedly, 0.0% THC. Some brands might have trace amounts (less than 0.05%). However, you’re on safe ground if the product’s labeling is accurate.
  • CBD Isolate: A CBD isolate product contains over 99% CBD on occasion and 0% THC. Again, you shouldn’t fail a drug test if the isolate comes from a reputable company. Sadly, however, dubious companies sell low-grade products, and some CBD isolate users claim THC metabolites showed up in their drug tests!

Reasons for Failing a Drug Test After Using CBD

The main reason why someone would fail a drug test after using CBD oil is due to the product’s THC content. This tends to happen when products are mislabeled.

If you consume a large amount of properly-labeled CBD daily and it has up to 0.3% THC, a failed drug screening is possible, though it isn’t likely. It would also help if you calculated your THC intake by checking the product’s third-party reports and analyzing your daily consumption.

However, there are other potential reasons why a CBD product could result in a failed drug test. Some are more likely than others.

Cross Contamination with THC Products During Manufacture

If a manufacturer produces both THC-free CBD isolate products and high-THC marijuana products, they could contaminate the isolate with residue from a high-THC extract. This is a highly improbable scenario but hypothetically possible. Indeed, it could happen with any CBD product you buy online or in a licensed dispensary.

Find out if the manufacturer creates both THC and CBD products. Brands such as Elixinol and Provacan specialize in CBD-rich products from hemp. Neither sells THC products, so there’s no need to worry about possible contamination.

Second Hand THC Exposure

In this instance, your excuse is that you unwittingly inhaled THC through second-hand exposure. Whether it is a viable reason is another matter entirely! Research seems to show that failing a drug test due to second-hand THC exposure is incredibly unlikely.

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Marijuana smokers exhale a relatively small quantity of THC. Therefore, it would take an immense amount of second-hand cannabis smoke exposure to fail a drug screening.

Could it be even more harmful …

One study, published in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology in 2015, looked into non-smoker exposure to second-hand cannabis smoke. Six experienced marijuana users smoked cannabis cigarettes across three sessions. The THC level of the cigarettes was 5.3% in session 1 and 11.3% in the subsequent two sessions. Six non-smokers were seated with the marijuana users in an alternating manner in a sealed chamber.

The maximum THC-COOH concentrations via GC-MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) testing revealed concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 57.5ng/ml. Overall, only one of the non-smokers produced a urine sample above 50ng/ml. The researchers concluded that while it is possible to fail a drug test in this fashion, it is rare and limited to the hours immediately after exposure. Also, it can only happen under environmental circumstances where exposure is apparent.

Ventilation is extremely important. If you find yourself in a poorly ventilated room where many people smoke marijuana, second-hand THC exposure could theoretically cause you to fail a drug screening. However, it is a hard sell!

THC Is Fat Soluble

Therefore, when you ingest it via a drop of oil beneath the tongue or edibles, it gets absorbed with other fats. Consequently, consuming a significant quantity of CBD edibles or full-spectrum oil could cause THC to accumulate in your body’s tissue in just 4-6 days. THC is detectable in the system for days to weeks, depending on the frequency of use.

Once again, third-party lab reports are essential! If you plan to consume 100+mg of CBD a day, especially through edibles or oil, make sure it is extremely low in THC.

False Positives

According to the Boston Medical Center, anywhere from 5% to 10% of drug tests produce false positives. These incorrect results can happen due to the consumption of various medications, vitamins, or supplements. Here is a list of the medications that could cause a false positive drug screening result:

  • Antibiotics
  • Antihistamines
  • Analgesics/NSAIDs
  • Antidepressants
  • CNS stimulants
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • CND stimulants like Adderall
  • Cough suppressants

Believe it or not, the following substances could also trigger a false positive:

  • Mouthwash
  • Poppy seeds
  • Vitamin B supplements
  • Tonic water

Can CBD Turn into THC After Consumption?

There’s a suggestion that CBD can molecularly break down into THC after interacting with low-pH acids in the stomach and digestive system. In a study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research in 2016, researchers found that CBD isomerizes into THC when exposed to highly acidic compounds like Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF).

However, according to a Project CBD article, some of the paper’s co-authors were scientists employed by a pharmaceutical company. Coincidentally, the organization was gathering data for the release of its new transdermal CBD patch. The Project CBD article suggests that the paper was published to make the transdermal patch look safer than oral CBD oil.

Regardless, CBD can break down into THC in the presence of acids. Yet, according to another study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research in 2017, this process is unlikely to occur under normal circumstances in humans.

What Happens if You Fail a Drug Screening?

If you have failed a drug test after using CBD oil, you could try and speak with the Medical Review Officer (MRO) to explain your situation as clearly (and respectfully) as possible. Some people still highly stigmatize cannabis in many parts of the country. Unfortunately, not everyone is aware of the differences between CBD/hemp and marijuana.

Some say that the presence of CBD may result in a cross-reaction with the immunoassay on a urine drug test. The argument is that you could potentially fail a drug test from CBD oil because the assay “accidentally” reads the CBD compound as THC. However, we’re not aware of any evidence to support this claim.

If this was the case, however, most drug tests can be verified by follow-up GC/MS analyses to ensure that the failure was due to THC metabolites’ presence, not some other compound(s).

As a last resort, you can always ask to see the report of the screening. Initial false positive readings are not unheard of. Still, a GC/MS is one of the only ways to verify whether or not this is the case. Please note that in this more accurate test, the cutoff point is 15ng/ml.

Can you trust that test?…

Final Thoughts on Why You Failed a Drug Test After Taking CBD Oil

If you purchase a high-quality CBD oil extracted from a viable industrial hemp supply with less than 0.3% THC content, the chances are low that you will fail a drug test. Brands such as Premium Jane, PureKana, and Green Roads tick all of these boxes.

However, don’t be fooled or manipulated by false claims that it is impossible because it has happened in the past. Rest assured, however, that such occurrences are a rarity.

To be as safe as possible, you can try a CBD isolate that claims to have a zero percent THC content. CBDistillery is among the leading lights when it comes to CBD isolate products.

Lastly, please don’t misinterpret any of the information in this article as medical or legal advice. Any individual who consumes marijuana, cannabis, hemp extract, CBD oil, or any other CBD product is doing so under their own discretion and is responsible for any potential negative consequences.

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If there is any chance that you might be drug tested, you need an effective way to clear your body of toxins reliably and quickly. We highly recommend ToxinRid by TestClear, they offer everything from 1 to 10 day detox programs that are the best we’ve found, and we’ve tried them all. Don’t take the risk or leave it too late, order a detox solution today because you never know when you’ll need it.

Full-Spectrum CBD May Trigger Positive THC Result

Use of so-called “full-spectrum” formulations of cannabidiol (CBD) products can cause users to test positive for THC, the component of marijuana that causes euphoria, according to an open-label study published in JAMA Psychiatry.

Full-spectrum CBD products contain THC, but at levels too low (≤0.30% by weight) to meet federal guidelines for Schedule 1 classification. To determine whether use of such a product might cause a positive urine drug test for THC, the authors enrolled 15 individuals being treated for anxiety to receive a full-spectrum, high-CBD extract containing 9.97 mg/mL of CBD (1.04%) and 0.23 mg/mL of Δ9-THC (0.02%), 1 mL sublingually 3 times per day for 4 weeks. Presence of THC was assessed using a presumptive test panel, followed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry performed by Quest Diagnostics.

Seven patients tested positive for THC, and 7 tested negative (1 patient dropped out).

“Despite limitations in sample size and diversity, these findings have important public health implications,” the authors concluded. “It is often assumed individuals using hemp-derived products will test negative for THC. Current results indicate this may not be true,” and the results may have “potential for adverse consequences, including loss of employment and legal or treatment ramifications, despite the legality of hemp-derived products.”

Dahlgren MK, Sagar KA, Lambros AM, et al. Urinary tetrahydrocannabinol after 4 weeks of a full-spectrum, high-cannabidiol treatment in an open-label clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. ePub ahead of print. November 4, 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3567

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